A Persistent Identifier (PID) is a unique code consisting of a string of letters and numbers used to identify objects, people, or concepts. Examples include Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs). Researchers can also have a persistent identifier, such as an Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID).
DOIs are persistent unique digital identifiers assigned to objects, such as research outputs like publications or datasets. A DOI is permanent and cannot be removed, but you can remove the public right to access the resource.
A DOI provides a persistent link to your work, even if its location on the internet changes over time. This helps others to locate and cite your work.
Digital tools like Altmetric Explorer use DOIs and other persistent identifiers to track research outputs and see how often they have been accessed, cited, or discussed.
You can use a DOI to manage your work in various scholarly systems (e.g. populating your ORCID profile and importing your record into the ARC’s Research Data Management System).
DOIs are exclusively issued by registered agencies, and you need to comply with the agency’s requirements to get a DOI for your work. It is not possible to self-register a DOI for an item made available only on your own website.
Some other repositories can also provide DOIs, including:
Zenodo - An open repository with free uploads up to 50GB. All uploaded work is eligible for a DOI.
Figshare - An open repository with free uploads up to 5GB. All uploaded work is eligible for a DOI.
F1000 Research - An open research publishing platform for researchers in all subject areas. All uploaded slides and posters are eligible for a DOI.
Open Science Framework - A free open platform for research collaboration and sharing. Public research is eligible for a DOI.
ResearchGate - An open source of free scholarly articles. DOIs can be generated for eligible uploads.
LabArchives eNotebooks - An Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN) for safely storing research data. If you use a LabArchives eNotebook, you can make it available to the public by creating a DOI through the LabArchives system.
ISBNs are persistent identifiers for books. They are used internationally across the book trade and library sector.
is internationally applied and recognised
is required by most retailers
improves the likelihood your book will be found and purchased
links to essential information about your book
enables more efficient marketing and distribution of your book
helps you collect and analyse book sales data.
An ISBN is not mandatory and does not provide copyright on a work. Publishers purchase or receive ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.